PICOT definition and Question Examples

PICOT definition and Question Examples

Evidence-based models follow a structured approach to address a query, involving formulating a question, finding and appraising relevant information, assessing its validity, and iteratively refining the process when necessary. The PICO(T) elements consist of: Problem/Patient/Population, Intervention/Indicator, Comparison, Outcome, and, optionally, Time element or Type of Study.

Example 1:

PICO Question: Does the implementation of mindfulness meditation (M) among pregnant women (P) with anxiety and depression reduce the use of antidepressant medications (I) compared to standard care without mindfulness meditation (C), and does it improve maternal and fetal outcomes (O)?

Example 2:

PICO Question: In children aged 5-10 years (P) diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), does behavioral therapy (I) result in better long-term academic performance (O) compared to stimulant medication (C)?

Example 3:

PICO Question: Among elderly patients (P) with chronic knee pain, does the use of acupuncture (I) provide better pain relief (O) compared to traditional pain medications (C)?

Example 4:

PICO Question: In post-operative patients (P) undergoing abdominal surgery, does the use of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) (I) result in better pain management (O) compared to nurse-administered analgesia (C)?

Example 5:

PICO Question: Among smokers (P) trying to quit smoking, does the use of nicotine replacement therapy (I) increase the success rate of quitting (O) compared to cold turkey quitting (C)?

Example 6:

PICO Question: In critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation (P), does daily sedation interruption (I) reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation (O) compared to continuous sedation (C)?

Example 7:

PICO Question: Among overweight adults (P) trying to lose weight, does the adoption of a low-carbohydrate diet (I) result in greater weight loss (O) compared to a low-fat diet (C)?

Example 8:

PICO Question: In elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment (P), does regular physical exercise (I) improve cognitive function (O) compared to a sedentary lifestyle (C)?

Example 9:

PICO Question: Among patients with chronic lower back pain (P), does chiropractic spinal manipulation (I) provide better pain relief (O) compared to physical therapy (C)?

Example 10:

PICO Question: In pregnant women with gestational diabetes (P), does dietary management and exercise (I) lead to better glycemic control (O) compared to insulin therapy (C)?