What is ADHD?

What is ADHD?
Focus-deficit/hyperactive disorder is a chronic condition that involves hyperactivity, impulsivity, and trouble sustaining attention. Typically originating in early infancy, it may also manifest in maturity. The condition is characterized by difficulties multitasking, difficulty concentrating on a single activity, poor time management skills, disorganization, and difficulty setting priorities.

It also had a poor frustration tolerance, restlessness, and impulsiveness (Punja, Shamseer, Hartling, Urichuk, Vandermeer, Nikles, & Vohra, 2016). The illness impairs the child’s self-esteem, leads to a variety of school offenses, and has an impact on the child’s relationships. Research indicates that genetics, the environment, and central nervous system complications might be key contributing factors in the development of ADHD.
Katie exhibits complete ADHD symptoms in the case study. Objectively and subjectively, the symptoms are apparent. The parents describe typical developmental milestones, but she was born with a low 5-minute Apgar score and had trouble sleeping throughout her preschool years, which may have contributed to the issue. According to both accounts, Katie has social difficulties with her classmates. Regarding her interactions with Katie, she attributed her lack of focus and attention on the few questions posed.
First decision point: based on the evaluation of Katie’s situation and the gathered data, it was determined that she had Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with a predominately inattentive presentation. Regarding other issues, this choice stood out.
In consideration of Katie’s symptoms, a choice was made. Her conduct blatantly demonstrates a lack of focus and distraction. She often loses interest in challenging jobs or dull topics due to her lack of concentration. Katie is unfocused and easily distracted, and she makes


She makes casual errors in her homework, forgets what she has previously mastered, and has weak skills in reading, spelling, and arithmetic. Her attention span is brief, and she is only known to pay attention to items that pique her interest. She finds it difficult to communicate with her classmates in the classroom and prefers to play alone during recess. These characteristics satisfy the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for ADHD.
By making this choice, I intended to accomplish a management of Katie’s illness that was supported by evidence. The most effective therapies that have a beneficial effect on the patient might be facilitated by a precise diagnosis of the disease based on the patient’s symptoms.
Knowledge of the problem being treated increases family-involved collaborative methods, such as the introduction of psychotherapy (Tegtmejer, Hjorne, & Saljo, 2018). The choice might also guide pharmaceutical treatments for ADHD that are successful. In this instance, the incorporation of psychotherapy might improve the child’s behavior modification and attention abilities as he or she matures.
The customer displayed a negligible improvement with reference to the choice. She was anticipated to exhibit some behavioral improvements; however, the discrepancy between expectations and actual outcomes was attributable to the absence of pharmaceutical interventions to complement the previously established practices.
The second decision: Begin Adderall XR 10 mg orally daily
The choice was made as a result of the client’s continued symptoms and lack of progress. The judgment concerned the selection of Adderall XR as the optimal medicine for the treatment of ADHD. The efficiency of the medicine is due to the presence of both amphetamine and dextroamphetamine. It alters the amount of certain compounds in the brain, hence altering the brain’s chemical composition.


Increasing the capacity to pay attention, regulating problematic behavior, and enhancing focus. Additionally, it enhances listening abilities and work organization (Bélanger, Andrews, Gray, & Korczak, 2018).
With this choice, I hoped to achieve the client’s acceptable conduct in order to improve her scholastic focus and her ability to concentrate on certain tasks. Adderall XR is a central nervous system stimulant that influences brain and nerve molecules that regulate hyperactivity and impulsivity. The usage of this medicine intended to reduce hyperactivity and impulsivity concurrently enhances attention and focused concentration while doing activities.
With the implementation of the decision, the customer displayed a significant improvement.
Katie began to focus more on school, which was a positive indication. However, she was suffering daydreams throughout the afternoon, which hindered her ability to concentrate. The disparity between expectations and results might be attributed to the dose of the medicine in conjunction with treatment adherence. Particularly in the morning, the drug’s concentration in the bloodstream may reach a peak in a short period of time. This may need adjusting the dose and administration intervals of the medicine.
Third determination: Add a little amount of immediate-release Adderall early in the afternoon.
The choice was made because the client noticed a lack of focus in the afternoon, suggesting dose abnormalities. A few hours after the initial dosage, the client’s focus improved (Hall et al., 2016). Therefore,


choice to modify dose and add a tiny quantity in the early afternoon to maintain during the class.
Katie’s full-day focus and concentration in the classroom was the primary objective of this choice. Due of the brevity of the afternoon courses, tiny amounts were added. The choice to administer a tiny amount was influenced by worries about her reduced appetite since the commencement of her medication. Katie can keep her focus throughout the afternoon and into the early evening, when she must do her schoolwork, by taking a modest dose of immediate-release Adderall in the afternoon.
After the intervention, the client should be able to sustain full-day focus. The gap between expectations and actual outcomes might be modest. Due to her progress, it was possible to detect the minor relapse flashes. Due to the fact that she is still developing at her age, the medicine dosage could not be adjusted over time to meet her body’s needs. Consequently, it could be necessary to gradually modify the amount.



Bélanger, S. A., Andrews, D., Gray, C., & Korczak, D. (2018). ADHD in children and adolescents: Part 1 – Etiology, diagnosis, and comorbidities Paediatrics & Child Health, 23(7), pages 447-453.
Hollis, C., Hall, C. L., Valentine, A. Z., Groom, M. J., Walker, G. M., Sayal, K., Daley, D., & Hollis, C. (2016). The therapeutic efficacy of the continuous performance test and objective measures of activity for diagnosing and monitoring attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: a comprehensive review. European child and adolescent psychiatry, 25(7), pages 677-699.
Punja, S., Shamseer, L., Hartling, L., Urichuk, L., Vandermeer, B., Nikles, J., & Vohra, S. (2016). Amphetamines for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Cochran Tegtmejer, T., Hjorne, E., & Saljo, R. (2018). Diagnosing ADHD in Danish elementary school children: a case study of the institutional classification of emotional and behavioral problems. Behavioral and Emotional Disorders, 23(2), 127-140.