How to write an essay on acute And Chronic Kidney Disease (Solved)

How to write an essay on acute And Chronic Kidney Disease (Solved)

Q1: Compare The Etiology Of Acute And Chronic Kidney Disease.

Acute kidney disease: the causes of AKI can be categorized as prerenal, intrarenal, or post-renal (Hinkle & Cheever, 2018). Prerenal causes include hypovolemic caused by blood loss, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Conditions that impair cardiac efficiency, such as heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and MI. Also, hypertension is caused by sepsis and severe allergic reactions. Intrarenal causes include using nephrotoxic agents like NSAIDs and extended periods of renal ischemia. Post-renal causes are due to the obstruction of the urinary tract by tumors, renal stones, and strictures.

Chronic kidney disease involves the progression and irreversible loss of kidney functions. The patients at this stage require renal replacement therapy on a permanent basis. The underlying condition determines the rate of decline and progression of ESRF and renal function (Hinkle & Cheever, 2018). The most common conditions are hypertension and diabetes. Patients with a higher rate of protein excretion and elevated blood pressure progress more quickly.

Q2: Describe The Mechanism For Acute Kidney Injury In Acute Tubular Necrosis.

Most adult patients hospitalized for AKI have acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Although usually reversible, it resolves much more gradually. ATN is usually observed in individuals who exhibit one of the three temporally related events that precede the development of AKI. ATN’s progression can be classified into three phases: Initiation, maintenance, and recovery (Hinkle & Cheever, 2018). The initiation phase follows the trauma and is characterized by sublethal cellular injury, loss of cell polarity, and brush border. The maintenance Phase follows the resolution of the irreversible renal parenchymal injury. The recovery Phase is when renal tissue repair occurs, characterized by increased urine production and decreased serum creatinine.


Hinkle, J. L., & Cheever, K. H. (2018). Brunner and Suddarth’s Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing. In Google Books. Wolters Kluwer India Pvt Ltd.

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