How to write an annotated Bibliography on feedback and key teaching strategies in healthcare education

How to write an annotated Bibliography on feedback and key teaching strategies in healthcare education

Selvaraj, A. M., & Azman, H. (2020). Reframing the effectiveness of feedback in improving teaching and learning achievement. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education9(4), 1055-1062.

Feedback is considered an indispensable component in teaching because of its compelling influence on learner outcomes. As one of the key teaching strategies in education, effective feedback is designed to determine the learner’s level of understanding and skill development. The instructor can use the feedback method to plan the next steps toward achieving learning goals. Selvaraj and Azman conducted a study to establish the effectiveness of feedback from teacher-written reviews in the education domain. In their literature review, the authors identified the feedback learning strategy as an important component of improving learning. Teachers are supposed to promote their students to identify the extent of their awareness and bridge the gap between their real and desired educational levels. Based on the meta-analysis conducted by the authors, the use of feedback enhanced the students’ accomplishment of goals and improved their learning performances.

Selvaraj and Azman’s article is relevant to my project because it discusses how providing feedback to students can be used to improve learning outcomes. The accuracy of the article is based on the collection of information from teacher-written reviews in the educational domain. The authors researched information from credible databases like Elsevier, ERIC, and Google Scholar to conclude their findings on the feedback teaching strategy. The article is of good quality because it is peer-reviewed, published in an international educational journal, and obtained findings through a literature analysis method.

Altmiller, G., Deal, B., Ebersole, N., Flexner, R., Jordan, J., Jowell, V., Norris, T., Risetter, M. J., Schuler, M., Szymanski, K., Vottero, B., & Walker, D. (2018). Constructive feedback teaching strategy: A multisite study of its effectiveness. Nursing Education Perspectives39(5), 291-296.

The need for evidence-based teaching practices is a driving force in nursing education and research today to ensure the preparation of competent and competitive nurses. Altmiller and colleagues researched to describe the students’ perceptions of feedback after participating in a teaching strategy that viewed feedback delivery as an opportunity for improvement. In this article, the authors note that the most difficult communication challenge experienced in healthcare is feedback delivery and the use of this feedback to make meaningful changes. Providing feedback should begin in nursing education to ensure students possess this skill as they move into their professional practice. Tow main themes that emerge in this article are delivery of constructive feedback and reinforcement of positive/negative feedback. Nurse educators have a moral responsibility to ensure safe practices by teaching students feedback to correct faulty interpretations. Using a qualitative design approach, the researchers collected data from 11 schools where feedback from 676 undergraduate nursing students was analyzed. The results obtained are of good quality because the researchers grouped feedback into several themes including learned skills, communication of feedback, self-reflection, and re-framing negative emotional responses. The feedback teaching strategy is important in nursing education and it aligns with QSEN competencies.


Bertilsson, F., Stenlund, T., Wiklund-Hörnqvist, C., & Jonsson, B. (2021). Retrieval practice: Beneficial for all students or moderated by individual differences?. Psychology Learning & Teaching20(1), 21-39.

Retrieval practice is a teaching strategy that is known to produce enhanced long-term memory retention among students. Compared to other learning strategies like group discussions and re-reading, retrieval practice produces a long-term learning benefit commonly called the testing effect. Bertilsson and colleagues researched to determine the effectiveness of retrieval practice on producing the testing effect sensitive to individual differences like cognition and memory capacity. In this article, the authors focus on the impact of personality traits and working memory capacity on the testing effect. Nurse educators should understand how traits like grit and the need for cognition affect the student’s ability to learn using retrieval practices. The research conducted in this article is of quality because it used many participants (196 students from natural and social sciences) alongside other data analysis tools like NFC scale and automated operation span task for working memory analysis. This research is significant because it shows how retrieval practice can help students to retain memory irrespective of their cognitive prerequisites and personal traits.

Moreira, B. F. T., Pinto, T. S. S., Starling, D. S. V., & Jaeger, A. (2019, February). Retrieval practice in classroom settings: A review of applied research. In Frontiers in Education (Vol. 4, p. 5). Frontiers Media SA.

Moreira and colleagues reviewed available literature to determine the importance of retrieval teaching strategy to students. The researchers argue that practicing retrieval yields significantly greater long-term retention of the studied materials than just restudying them. The article also talks about the testing effect discussed earlier and how the effect has been thought to be a promising strategy to improve learning in classroom settings and has been recommended as an effective and inexpensive learning strategy to be adopted in schools. Teachers, especially those providing instruction in laboratory studies, should use free-recall, cued-recall, and recognition tests to enhance the student’s ability to remember learned information. This article is relevant to my practicum project because it highlights the importance of recall tests during learning and how they improve the student’s ability to learn. Using strategies like multiple-choice tests can elicit free and cued-recall aspects of learning among students. This article is of good quality because it analyses literature from different databases like Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar. All articles analyzed in this research were experimental in nature with the majority involving experiments conducted in actual classrooms to ascertain the importance of the retrieval teaching method in improving student learning.

Lipnevich, A. A., & Panadero, E. (2021). A review of feedback models and theories: Descriptions, definitions, and conclusions. In Frontiers in Education (p. 481). Frontiers.

Lipnevich and Panadero argue that the positive effect of feedback on student performance is no longer disputed. The information provided to students about their performance affects their learning. In their research, Lipnevich and Panadero describe the most prominent models and theories regarding the mechanism of the feedback process. Emphasizing cognitive and constructive theories of learning, feedback delivery is done to change their behavior by giving information that can be used to process and construct knowledge. The researchers provide information on how teachers can provide feedback in more attractive ways rather than focusing on the students’ performances only. Traditional methods of providing feedback through punishment and reinforcement should be abolished because corrective feedback has no positive effects on the learner. This article is important because it provides detailed information on feedback delivery and the models behind this teaching strategy. Overall, the effectiveness of feedback varies depending on a specific characteristic of feedback messages that learners receive. This article is of good quality because it provides a systematic review of 14 publications discussing feedback teaching strategy and the ideas behind this learning approach.

Sana, F., Forrin, N. D., Sharma, M., Dubljevic, T., Ho, P., Jalil, E., & Kim, J. A. (2020). Optimizing the efficacy of learning objectives through pretests. CBE Life Sciences Education19(3), ar43.

One of the best teaching strategies used by many instructors is the use of learning objectives (LOs). these objectives describe what the student should be able to obtain by the end of the learning session. According to the researchers, active presentation of LOs to students increases their concentration on key areas of learning and improves their performances in specific areas of instruction. In their literature review, the authors define LOs as knowledge about specific information that students should learn by the end of a study session. Using an experimental approach, Sana and colleagues aimed to examine whether presenting LOs before reading academic passages enhanced learning compared with not presenting the LOs. Additionally, the researchers analyzed how delivering LOs using pretests could improve learning and memory retention among students. Overall, the study found that interpolating LOs statements throughout the lesson improves learning. The study is relevant to my practicum project because it indicates using LOs and pretests can enhance teaching and lead to better student performance. The quality of this article is undisputed because it used an experimental approach for each aspect of teaching evaluated. Their results are applicable across all learning settings because they are supported by adequate evidence from the literature.

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