How to write a nursing Research article critique (Solved)

How to write a nursing Research article critique (Solved)

Significance of the research problem

The research article is titled “Unequal treatment: confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care.” This research was prompted by ethnic and racial bias in healthcare which takes many forms and has negative implications on the target populations. The differences were due to discrimination and stereotyping at the patient, healthcare provider, institutional, and healthcare system levels. The result is negative health outcomes in these populations, such as high mortality rates due to cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes, even though they have equal rights to access healthcare services. Confronting the disparities in healthcare delivery is critical to providing quality nursing care aligning with the ethical principle of justice.

Strengths and weaknesses of the study

The article uses a crossectional study design to collect data. This study design observes different groups in a population and establishes the health disparities at a specific time. On the other hand, the article does not specify which racial and ethnic minority groups the data was collected from. There is a wide range of minority groups, and the study might not have captured all of them at that specific time. Therefore, the findings cannot be generalized to a larger population. Also, participant bias is possible, especially when the study is only conducted among the victimized people.


The article does not clearly state the methodology used in data collection. Therefore, it is unknown whether it was appropriate or not.

How the findings reflect the reality

The article found that racial and ethnic differences in healthcare occur when there is a comparable difference in income, age, insurance status, and severity of conditions. To find out the reasons for racial and ethnic disparities during the COVID-19 crisis, the CDC (2020) attributes lower incomes and wealth to racial and ethnic minority groups. These groups often experience obstacles to wealth accumulation due to the heavy debt burden. Therefore, managing regular expenses such as medical bills, affordable quality housing, healthy food, and reliable childcare is a challenge (CDC, 2020).

Another finding is that healthcare systems, health professionals, patients, and health care plan managers significantly contribute to racial and ethnic differences. The CDC (2020) comments that racial and ethnic minority groups are unreasonably affected during the COVID-19 crisis by disparities in quality health care accessibility, health insurance, and culturally responsive healthcare delivery.

Consistency of findings with other studies

The results of other studies are consistent with the findings in this article. For instance, Chen et al. (2016) report that the implementation of the Affordable Care Act was necessitated by unequal coverage and access to healthcare services among the ethnic and racial minority groups. The study findings demonstrate that these minority groups have better coverage and access to healthcare services under the Affordable Care Act compared to whites.

Another study finding was the healthcare system contributes to disparities in ethnic and racial minority groups. The CDC (2020) findings are consistent with this result. It points out the unequal representation of people from ethnic and racial minority groups in health and healthcare, resulting in distrust of government and healthcare systems. The result is an increased risk of poor health outcomes among these people.

Bias and prejudice among healthcare providers toward minority groups is also a finding in other studies. Weinstein et al. (2017) report that sexual minorities face several obstacles to healthcare accessibility, such as provider-related discrimination, exclusion from their partner’s health insurance, and psychosocial arrives. Therefore, health care disparities manifest in different ways affecting the minority groups.

Replication of the study and implications of the findings

The study can be replicated in different circumstances. For example, it can focus on one minority group at a time. The minority groups include Hispanics, Black-Americans, Latinos, the LGBTQ community, and immigrants. Therefore, the results can be generalized to a larger population since there will be no over or under-representation of any group.

Several studies in the field of health regarding health inequalities are still underway. The findings of this study will be used to formulate health policies that will strategically and effectively inform interventions that will eliminate or minimize health disparities. Also, other studies can build on these findings to come up with relevant solutions to address this problem.

Future investigations

Various gaps evident in this study impacts future studies. For instance, this study can produce more generalized results when conducted through a longitudinal design. Conducting this study in various minority groups at different points over a long period can gather reliable data that will inform the application of finding in healthcare settings. Also, this study should expand to include other minority groups, such as people with disabilities and military veterans. Lastly, future studies can investigate how a single disparity affects individuals or communities. Therefore, more efforts should be channeled into healthcare research to investigate various aspects of disparities in healthcare.


Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020). Introduction To COVID- 19 Racial And Ethnic Health Disparities. Retrieved from

Chen, J., Vargas-Bustamante, A., Mortensen, K., & Ortega, A. N. (2016). Racial and ethnic disparities in health care access and utilization under the Affordable Care Act. Medical care54(2), 140. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0000000000000467

Weinstein, J. N., Geller, A., Negussie, Y., & Baciu, A. (2017). National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Committee on Community-Based Solutions to Promote Health Equity in the United States. Retrieved from

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