How to write a nursing Foundations and Essentials in Nursing paper (Solved)

How to write a nursing Foundations and Essentials in Nursing paper (Solved)

The article selected for this discussion examines a crossroads in nursing in the areas of ethics and genetics. The area of genetics and genomics is rapidly expanding and nurses should be prepared to deal with ethical issues that may arise during care delivery. The article addresses the topic of cancer genetics and ethics through the case of Kevin, a 39-year-old man diagnosed with classic familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Classic FAP is a hereditary condition transmitted via a dominant pattern and it causes the development of several polyps that cause colorectal cancer (Beamer, 2017). With early identification, affected individuals can be regularly screened and preventive measures like colectomy can be used to prevent colon cancer.

Ethical issues addressed in the article include autonomy, beneficence, and the right to know and not to know. Kevin’s younger brother Larry is faced with the challenge of knowing whether he has FAP that could potentially cause colon cancer in later stages of life. In addition, Larry has a 9-year-old daughter (Janie) that is likely to be affected by the condition if his father has FAP. Larry has made it clear that he does not want to be tested and this leaves a huge gap in knowing whether her daughter will be affected. Knowing whether Larry has the genetic condition can be an important step to guide the initiation of annual colonoscopy and bowel endoscopy for Janie which starts at the age of 12 years.

The four main ethical principles that guide nursing care delivery are autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice (Beamer, 2017). In the selected article, the principle of autonomy manifests through Larry’s decision of not wishing to proceed with genetic testing. However, the nurse should ensure that the principle of beneficence which requires one to do good prevails. In this case, Larry and Janie are in danger of not receiving the right care that is dependent on the genetic testing results. Both individuals have a few years before the disease starts to manifest or before preventive measures become necessary.

The ethical criteria most implicated in this article are the duty to know and the right not to know. Larry has the right to refuse to test for the hereditary defective gene but the consequences are fatal. For instance, Janie’s need to be rescued may supersede Larry’s right to autonomy. Janie’s mother may decide to perform genetic testing on her daughter for the defective gene and positive results will automatically mean Larry is also affected (Beamer, 2017). At this point, the nurse should employ the ethical position of mutuality that requires the healthcare provider to warn the family and relatives when the patient refuses to share genetic information.

Academic integrity refers to the commitment to and demonstration of certain fundamental values including honesty, respect, and fairness during learning. I believe students that uphold high standards of academic integrity are able to practice ethically and make sound decisions during care delivery. Actions like consulting with the ethics department when ethical issues arise demonstrate the student’s ability to maintain academic standards of honesty and responsibility. The first strategy I will recommend to maintain academic integrity throughout the PhD course is timely communication. I will ensure to communicate when late for assignments or when other issues affect class attendance. The second strategy I would recommend is the use of plagiarism check tools and Turnitin for my assignments. These tools will guide me during research and ensure honesty in all assignments.


Beamer L. C. (2017). Ethics and Genetics: Examining a crossroads in nursing through a case study. Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing21(6), 730–737.

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