How to write a nursing essay on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Older Adults capstone proposal (Solved)

How to write a nursing essay on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Older Adults capstone proposal (Solved)

Week 1: The topic proposed for the MSN Capstone project is the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus in older adults. The past 50 years have seen a growing aging population with an increasing prevalence of chronic conditions like diabetes, asthma, and heart disease (Bellary et al., 2021). Today, the elderly( aged 65 years and above) account for nearly half of all individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the United States, the number of people aged 65 and older is estimated to reach 98 million by 2060 making the prevention of the disease crucial (Longo et al., 2019). The compelling reason that led to the selection of type 2 diabetes prevention in older adults is the differences observed in disease management compared to younger patients. For instance, frequent occurrence of comorbidities, presence of frailty, and functional impairment among the elderly make prevention and treatment complicated (Bellary et al., 2021). On the other hand, there is a greater risk of macrovascular complications among the elderly making priorities and treatment choices different in this population.

Week 2

Diabetes is recognized as an important cause of mortality and morbidity among the elderly population. The management of the disease is complex because of difficulties in individualizing glycemic targets and choosing the best treatment approaches (Longo et al., 2019). Acute hyperglycemia can be fatal to elderly patients leading to dehydration and orthostasis that increases the risk for falls. Additionally, poor glucose control can cause neuropathy and cognition changes leading to accelerated functional decline. Therefore, the prevention of type 2 diabetes effects should aim at glycemic control using pharmacotherapy and other lifestyle changes (Bigelow & Freeland, 2017). The goals for glycemic control should be based on the overall health of the patient. Research supports the implementation of risk reduction behaviors for older adults like exercise, smoking cessation, and the use of aspirin therapy for those with macrovascular complications (Bigelow & Freeland, 2017). Lifestyle modification, like in younger patients, should be used to prevent prediabetes and diabetes in older adults. Strategies like weight reduction, healthy eating, and physical activity are observed to lower the need for diabetes medication.

The most interesting outcome of interest is that this project will propose evidence-based interventions that can prevent type 2 diabetes and reduce the need for medication use. The gaps related to this topic mostly involve optimal glycemic control among elderly patients with diabetes mellitus. With all the lifestyle interventions and medication, nearly half of the elderly are not maintaining or achieving appropriate target blood glucose levels leading to rapid disease progression (Bellary et al., 2021). Additionally, there is a lack of sufficient evidence on the use of exercise among elderly patients given their physical health status and other comorbidities that impact exercise and physical activity.


The advanced nursing practice goes beyond general care to patients to include leadership in directing nursing practice. One of the concepts I have borrowed from nursing and other disciplines is critical theory and critical thinking. For example, applying critical thinking and decision-making has helped manage conflict in clinical practice. Another key concept borrowed is behavioral technology which mainly involves organizational development and management. I have managed to apply this concept by engaging in scientific research to determine evidence-based interventions for improving the quality of healthcare. For example, the Capstone project on preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus among the elderly demonstrates the use of evidence-based practice in nursing.


Bellary, S., Kyrou, I., Brown, J. E., & Bailey, C. J. (2021). Type 2 diabetes mellitus in older adults: Clinical considerations and management. Nature Reviews Endocrinology17(9), 534-548.

Bigelow, A., & Freeland, B. (2017). Type 2 diabetes care in the elderly. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners13(3), 181-186.

Longo, M., Bellastella, G., Maiorino, M. I., Meier, J. J., Esposito, K., & Giugliano, D. (2019). Diabetes and aging: From treatment goals to pharmacologic therapy. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 45.

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