Multicultural communication focuses on the dynamics of communication across different cultures (Croucher, 2020). This concept explores what happens when people from different cultures meet in an organization, community, or country. Multicultural communication is said to originate from trade and immigration (Croucher, 2020). Coming together with people from diverse cultures makes communication unavoidable.
Compare and contrast culture, ethnicity, and acculturation
Culture is a term that defines the traditions, beliefs, values, and norms of the society a person grows (Liebkind, 2012). Those with the same culture exhibit common things like language, religion, dance, music, and acceptable behaviors. Ethnicity represents the identity of a group based on perceived cultural distinctiveness that makes the group who they are (Liebkind, 2012). Acculturation refers to people of different cultures coming together and sharing their beliefs, norms, and customs.
Explain how cultural and religious differences affect the health care professional and the issues that can arise in cross-cultural communications
During healthcare delivery, healthcare professionals attend to people from different cultures with varied beliefs. The healthcare provider must understand the beliefs of these people and take them into account while providing care. Involving the patient and the family during care becomes central when interacting with people to ensure their values are respected (Liebkind, 2012). During cross-cultural communication, one of the issues observed is the language barrier. People may fail to understand each other and require translation services to pass information.
Discuss family culture and its effect on patient education
Culture is a way of thinking, living, and behaving. Family culture represents an aggregate of attributes, ideals, and attitudes that a person inherits from their ancestors and parents. The family culture provides a framework for how to do things, interact with others, and respond to change. Family culture can affect patient education if the family traditions conflict with the healthcare providers’. For example, some patients may like to be educated in the presence of their families. Others may only take the information given by superior professionals.
List some approaches the health care professional can use to address religious and cultural diversity
- Learn about other cultures
- Build trust and rapport with patients
- Involve families in patient care
- Evaluate personal attitudes, behaviors, and biases
List the types of illiteracy
- Functional illiteracy
- Cultural illiteracy
- Moral illiteracy
Discuss illiteracy as a disability
Illiteracy refers to the inability to read or write and it significantly affects how people are treated in society. Although illiteracy does not qualify adults as disabled, illiteracy that originates from medical conditions has raised debates. The Society for Human Resources explains that the inability to read or write doesn’t qualify as a disability (Merritt, 2017). However, individuals may suffer conditions like stroke that may leave them unable to read and write and this can make illiteracy a disability.
Give examples of some myths about illiteracy
Failure to read and write is an educational problem. Most people believe that those who fail to read and write do so because they cannot comprehend what is taught in school. The truth is that illiteracy is both an educational and economic problem. Families with no capital may fail to support their children beyond third grade rendering them illiterate. Another myth is that illiterate people are not intelligent. This is not true because many illiterate people have risen to be successful in business and are even employers of the learned.
Explain how to assess literacy skills and evaluate written material for readability
Literacy skills include listening, reading, speaking, and writing. Other skills may include vocabulary, comprehension, and spelling. To assess these skills, the provider can use curriculum-based measurement where teaching is done and the learner is questioned (Badarudeen & Sabharwal, 2010). In healthcare, the teach-back method can be used to assess the literacy skills of patients. To evaluate materials for readability, the use of tools like Flesch-Kincaid Grade, Fry Readability Graph, and Gunning Fog Index among many others are preferred 9Badarudeen & Sabharwal, 2010). For example, the Flesch reading ease score analyzes the ease of readability based on the average number of syllables per word and the average number of words per sentence. The results are given on a scale of 0–100, with 0 being unreadable and 100 being most readable.
Identify ways a health care professional may establish effective communication
The healthcare provider should use simple language to communicate care to the patient. Active listening and empathizing with the patient is another strategy to build trust during communication (Hull, 2017). The provider should combine both verbal and non-verbal cues during communication to promote understanding. Other ways may include using open-ended questions, maintaining privacy, and using technology.
Suggest ways the health care professional can help a patient remember instruction
- Encourage the patient to take short notes during discussions
- Incorporate different teaching methods like watching videos, reading information, and hands-on activities.
- Involve the patient’s family during education.
Badarudeen, S., & Sabharwal, S. (2010). Assessing readability of patient education materials: Current role in orthopaedics. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 468(10), 2572–2580. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11999-010-1380-
Croucher, S. M. (2020). The importance of culture and communication. Frontiers in Communication, 5, 61. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcomm.2020.00061
Hull, R. H. (2017). Communication strategies for a successful practice. The Hearing Journal, 70(5), 22-23. doi: 10.1097/01.HJ.0000516778.69034.05
Liebkind, K. (2012). Ethnic identity and acculturation. In D. Sam & J. Berry (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Acculturation Psychology (Cambridge Handbooks in Psychology, pp. 78-96). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511489891.009
Merritt, C. (2017). Does an illiterate adult qualify for disability? https://pocketsense.com/illiterate-adult-qualify-disability-8401033.html
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