How to write a nursing essay on Menopause (Solved)

How to write a nursing essay on Menopause (Solved)

Concepts of Menopause

Menopause is a biopsychosocial phenomenon that involves the transition of a woman’s life from being fertile to infertile (Ilankoon et al., 2021). Menopause is defined as the end of a woman’s menstrual cycle as a result of exhaustion of the follicular endowment in the ovary. According to the National Institute on Aging (2021), menopause is a point in time 12 months after a woman’s last menstrual period. The years leading to that point can range from 7 to 14 years and the transition begins between the age of 45 and 55 years. The clinical implications of menopause for women are permanent loss of menses and fertility.

The concept of menopause can be explained in three main stages. Perimenopause begins in the early 40s when ovaries start producing less estrogen (National Institute on Aging, 2021). The ovaries gradually lose estrogen and this stage lasts until menopause. The second stage is called menopause and it represents the point when periods stop. The stage is diagnosed when a woman has undergone 12 consecutive months without a menstrual period (National Institute on Aging, 2021). The last stage is postmenopause which represents the rest of the years after menopause.

Misconception of Menopause

Although menopause is considered a universal phenomenon for women, women’s experiences during this stage are different. There is a misconception that menopause is a medical ailment rather than a natural process. Well, menopause is a natural process that the body goes through, but in some cases, treatment may be required. For instance, menopause may result in extremely unpleasant physical symptoms like vaginal atrophy of mucosa leading to pruritus, vaginitis, and stenosis (Ilankoon et al., 2021). Some individuals may be faced with the challenge of frequent urinary tract infections and incontinence. Reduced estrogen levels may cause weight gain, fatigue, and emotional changes like anxiety and depression (Ilankoon et al., 2021). The presence of most of these symptoms in many women may increase the misconception that menopause is an ailment. Despite the existence of these symptoms menopause is a natural process and the body slowly readjusts to these changes.

Clinical Presentation and Symptoms

Women nearing menopause will start experiencing hot flashes, sudden feelings of warmth that spreads over the upper body. The face and neck may become flushed and red blotches can be observed on the chest, back, and arms (National Institute on Aging, 2021). Night sweats and cold flashes are common and the majority experience urgency to urinate. Insomnia and emotional changes may occur due to changes in hormone levels (National Institute on Aging, 2021). Some individuals may experience joint aches, racing heart, headaches, and weight gain.

Hormone Replacement Therapies

The effects of menopausal hormone therapy vary depending on several factors. Factors like age, time of onset, and hormone therapy type can affect how one responds to this treatment approach (Flores et al., 2021). Hormonal therapy remains the most effective approach for managing genitourinary and vasomotor symptoms of menopause (Flores et al., 2021). The risks associated with hormonal therapy include venous thrombosis, breast cancer, gallstones, and stroke.

Additional Management Strategies

The first strategy includes lifestyle changes including regulation of core body temperature, weight management, and smoking cessation (Santoro et al., 2021). This approach is important to reduce the risk of vasomotor symptoms like hot flashes but may be slow in achieving desirable outcomes. The second strategy involves the use of herbal medicines like red clover and soy isoflavones. These remedies appear to be effective when used for shorter periods (Santoro et al., 2021). Another approach may involve the use of neurotransmitter modulators like SSRIs to relieve menopause symptoms (Santoro et al., 2021). However, these drugs can only manage a few symptoms like anxiety and depression making them less effective than estrogen therapies.

Flores, V. A., Pal, L., & Manson, J. E. (2021). Hormone therapy in menopause: Concepts, controversies, and approach to treatment. Endocrine Reviews, 42(6), 720-752.
Ilankoon, I. M. P. S., Samarasinghe, K., & Elgán, C. (2021). Menopause is a natural stage of aging: A qualitative study. BMC Women’s Health, 21(1), 1-9.
National Institute on Aging. (2021). Health information: What is menopause?,between%20ages%2045%20and%2055.
Santoro, N., Roeca, C., Peters, B. A., & Neal-Perry, G. (2021). The menopause transition: Signs, symptoms, and management options. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 106(1), 1-15.

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