How to write a Module 5 Assignment: Case Study Analysis in nursing (Solved)

How to write a Module 5 Assignment: Case Study Analysis in nursing (Solved)

The above case study represents a condition called stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA). A stroke is an abrupt neurological outburst that occurs following impaired perfusion of the brain blood vessels. In the US, stroke is one of the leading causes of disability with ischemic stroke being the most common type (Feigin et al., 2021). During treatment, the aim is always to restore blood circulation to the brain and to minimize stroke-induced neurological damage.

Neurological and Musculoskeletal Pathophysiologic Processes

The neurological processes in the case study may be related to hypertension and the development of stroke. The patient had a stroke that may be a result of hypertension that caused the rupture of small blood vessels in the brain. For instance, the rupture of blood vessels at the pons level in the brain could present similar characteristics (Kuriakose & Xiao, 2020). The musculoskeletal presentation of the patient includes left-sided weakness including mild left facial droop and dysarthria. These signs may be caused by the damage to the pyramidal tract in the pons. This area contains fibers that are responsible for controlling the body’s motor function.

Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide and can be classified according to to cause of impaired blood flow to the brain. For instance, ischemic occlusions account for around 85% of casualties in strokes (O’Donnell & Yuan, 2018). The development of blood clots leads to impaired blood flow in the narrow brain vessels. Impaired blood flow then results in necrosis and cell death that manifests as weakness in one part of the body. Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for 10 to 15% of all cases whereby internal injuries cause blood vessels to rupture (Kuriakose & Xiao, 2020). Hypertension is the main cause of hemorrhagic stroke with the damage of the facial nerve leading to symptoms like drooling and speech problems. The risk for stroke increases with age with other factors like sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, hypertension, and alcoholism accelerating the disease development.

Racial/Ethnic Variables

Some racial/ethnic disparities exist in individuals leading to the development of stroke and the patient’s response to the condition. Research establishes that blacks have a higher prevalence of developing stroke because of conditions like untreated hypertension, diabetes, and higher c-reactive protein (Feigin et al., 2021). The presence of multiple risk factors in some races places them at risk of developing stroke and subsequent management is attached to beliefs and financial stability. Apart from these observable factors, conditions in utero and during the first years of life can determine the development of the disease.

The presentation of patients also differs across racial/ethnic groups because of traditional beliefs. For example, the elderly of African or African American origin may fail to accept that they are ill in front of their family members because illness and pain are associated with weakness (Kuriakose & Xiao, 2020). In the provided case study, the patient continuously refuses to report signs of stroke like slurred speech and muscle weakness leading to delayed treatment.

Interaction of Processes

Hypertension is one of the predominant risk factors for stroke with about 54% of all cases involving issues with high blood pressure. This condition causes the rupture of small blood vessels in the brain and the affection of brain areas like the pons leads to one-sided body weakness (O’Donnell & Yuan, 2018). Early recognition of signs and treatment is important to prevent permanent damage ad even death. Because of the racial differences, recognition of the signs may be difficult and patients may not be ready to accept they are ill depending on their cultural backgrounds. The physiologic function is also a factor related to age whereby the elderly are at increased risk of developing stroke than the young generation. The incidence of hemorrhagic stroke is high in black people compared to whites making the presence of issues like hypertension a physiologic disadvantage in such groups.


Feigin, V. L., Stark, B. A., Johnson, C. O., Roth, G. A., Bisignano, C., Abady, G. G., … & Hamidi, S. (2021). Global, regional, and national burden of stroke and its risk factors, 1990–2019: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The Lancet Neurology20(10), 795-820.

Kuriakose, D., & Xiao, Z. (2020). Pathophysiology and treatment of stroke: Present status and future perspectives. International Journal of Molecular Sciences21(20), 7609.

O’Donnell, M. E., & Yuan, J. X. J. (2018). Pathophysiology of stroke: The many and varied contributions of brain microvasculature. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology315(3), C341-C342.

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