How to write a Case Study Analysis on Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)

How to write a Case Study Analysis on Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)

The factors that affect fertility (STDs)

Sexually transmitted diseases like Chlamydia and Gonorrhea are recognized to cause reproductive problems like infertility. The bacteria causing these infections may travel from the vagina to the fallopian tubes, uterus, and even the ovaries causing scarring that impairs fertilization and implantation (Tsevat et al., 2017). For example, when scarring occurs in the fallopian tubes, the sperms are unable to swim freely making fertilization of the egg difficult. Gonorrhea is the most common cause of infertility when left untreated for long (Tsevat et al., 2017). This disease causes blockage of the fallopian tubes and contributes to pelvic inflammatory disease making conception difficult.

Why inflammatory markers rise in STD/PID

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is mainly caused by the colonization of the endocervix by microorganisms that cause STDs like Neisseria gonorrhea and Chlamydia trachomatis (Park et al., 2017). These microorganisms result in the development of endometritis, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (FHCS) characterized by inflammation. Inflammatory markers like CA-125, ESR, and CRP are observed to increase Chlamydia infection and acute PID (Park et al., 2017). The inflammatory responses in the fallopian tubes, ovaries and the uterus due to PID causes the rise in inflammatory markers. Peritoneal irritation due to ruptured ectopic pregnancy, salpingitis, and endometriosis markedly elevate serum CA-125 (Park et al., 2017). Testing the level of this inflammatory marker can help to diagnose or test for acute PID.

 Why prostatitis infection happens and causes of systemic reaction

Prostatitis is an infection of the prostate gland that happens to men of all ages. This infection can be caused by bacteria and result in pelvic pain due to inflammation. The four types of prostatitis infection include chronic prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, acute bacterial prostatitis, and non-bacterial prostatitis. Apart from bacterial causes, non-bacterial prostatitis may result from stress, nerve irritation, injuries, or past urinary tract infections. Acute bacterial prostatitis can cause systemic symptoms like fever, chills, malaise, and myalgia. In patients who are immunocompromised, a prostatic abscess can cause bacteremia and generalized septic syndrome characterized by tachycardia, tachypnea, and hypotension. Suspected sepsis patients should be hospitalized and given broad-spectrum antibiotics.

Why a patient would need a splenectomy after a diagnosis of ITP

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a disorder that results from autoantibodies against platelet antigens. In ITP, the immune system destroys platelets that are removed from circulation in the spleen (Rodeghiero, 2018). The spleen plays a key role in the pathogenesis of ITP because it is where platelet destruction and autoantibody production occurs. A splenectomy is an approach used to ensure more platelets remain in the blood circulation following the failure of other standard treatments with corticosteroids (Rodeghiero, 2018). While splenectomy may raise the platelet count, it does not address the main cause of ITP.

Anemia and the different kinds of anemia

Anemia is a condition where the body lacks adequate healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen to the body tissues. In practice, the classification of anemia based on parameters of red cell morphology such as mean corpuscular volume (MCV) allows for quick diagnosis. Based on MCV findings, anemia is classified as microcytic, normocytic, or macrocytic (Yavorkovsky, 2021). Microcytic anemia consists of small hypochromic red blood cells characterized by low MCV. Normocytic anemia consists of low hemoglobin in red blood cells with a normal MCV of 80 fL – 100fL and normal red color of RBCs (Yavorkovsky, 2021). Macrocytic anemia is characterized by high MCV levels usually greater than 100 fL. Patients with anemia experience signs like fatigue, weakness, irregular heartbeat, and chest pain.


Park, S. T., Lee, S. W., Kim, M. J., Kang, Y. M., Moon, H. M., & Rhim, C. C. (2017). Clinical characteristics of genital chlamydia infection in pelvic inflammatory disease. BMC Women’s Health17(1), 1-7.

Rodeghiero, F. (2018). A critical appraisal of the evidence for the role of splenectomy in adults and children with ITP. British Journal of Haematology181(2), 183-195.

Tsevat, D. G., Wiesenfeld, H. C., Parks, C., & Peipert, J. F. (2017). Sexually transmitted diseases and infertility. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology216(1), 1–9.

Urology Care Foundation. (2021). Prostatitis (Infection of the prostate): What are prostatitis and related chronic pelvic pain conditions?

Yavorkovsky, L. L. (2021). Mean corpuscular volume, hematocrit and polycythemia. Hematology26(1), 881-884.

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