How to respond to a nursing discussion  board admittance Examine the levels of TBI

How to respond to a nursing discussion  board admittance Examine the levels of TBI

Examine the levels of TBI— mild, moderate, and severe. Discuss the signs and symptoms of each.
Injury to the extra pyramidal motor system does not cause paralysis of voluntary movement and general spasticity. Explain why and discuss the major motor symptoms observed in extra pyramidal motor disorders..
Discuss the stages of intra cranial hypertension and make a list of symptoms that are associated with each stage. Discuss how to identify hypertension from these clinical manifestations.

Discussion 4 (805)

Traumatic brain injury, also known as acquired brain injury, is a sudden trauma that damages the brain and disrupts the brain’s normal function. TBI profoundly leads to physical, psychological, emotional, and cognitive side effects. Traumatic brain injury is classified into three; mild TBI. Moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (Capizzi et al., 2020).

Mild TBI, also known as concussion, is a substantial injury to the brain whose symptoms may progress to ongoing disability. Unexpected trauma can impair brain function leading to a chemical change in the brain, thus damaging brain cells. Signs and symptoms of mild TBI include confusion and disorientation, difficulty remembering new information, headache, blurred vision, and sensitivity to light or sound. The Glasgow coma scale ranges from 8 to 12. Symptoms associated with moderate TBI include confusion, disorientation, slurred vision, and memory loss.

ModerateTBI occurs when trauma changes brain function for longer than a 30minutes. Signs and symptoms in moderate traumatic brain injury are more prolonged than in mild traumatic brain injury. Signs and symptoms of moderate TBI  include; loss of consciousness lasting up to 24 hours, dizziness, blurred vision, headache, confusion, inability to recall new information, disorientation, and problems with finding words (Najem et al., 2018).

Finally, severe traumatic brain injury occurs when the traumatic force extensively affects the brain’s normal function. Its symptoms range from physical, cognitive, and sensory symptoms requiring urgent medical interventions. Severe TBI ends up in a state of coma. Physical symptoms of severe TBI include; complete loss of consciousness, convulsions or seizures, persistent headache or headache that worsens,  dilation o both or one pupil,  sudden swelling or bruises behind the ears or around the eyes, and loss of coordination and balance. Sensory symptoms include blurred vision, double vision, and sensitivity to light or sound. Cognitive symptoms include coma and profound confusion.


Capizzi, A., Woo, J., & Verduzco-Gutierrez, M. (2020). Traumatic brain injury: an overview of epidemiology, pathophysiology, and medical management. Medical Clinics104(2), 213 238.

Najem, D., Rennie, K., Ribecco-Lutkiewicz, M., Ly, D., Haukenfrers, J., Liu, Q., & Bani-Yaghoub, M. (2018). Traumatic brain injury: classification, models, and markers. Biochemistry and cell biology96(4), 391-406.

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