Hi Natacha Jean, your post is an excellent depiction with step by step explanation of the cause and symptoms of traumatic brain injury; I agree that traumatic brain injury occurs due to either penetrating or non-penetrating injuries to the brain. As you have described, non-penetrating trauma includes unintentional blunt injury, jolt, or a blow. Penetrating trauma poses serious injury to tissues of the brain. Glasgow coma scale is a vital indicator that guides health care workers in ruling out the extent of injury to the brain. It is factual that the traumatic brain exists in three levels that are mild, moderate, and severe TBI.
The levels of traumatic injury depend on the power of an injury. To add to your post, it is vital to understand the length of exposure to injury, which significantly indicates the trauma to the brain. Its key to note that the symptoms of mild and moderate TBI may be the same, which can confuse someone. The symptoms attributed to mild TBI last less than 30 minutes, moderate symptoms last more than 30 minutes, not longer than 12 hours, and severe TBI may last beyond 24 hours. The Glasgow coma scale of mild is 13 to 15, moderate TBI is 8 to 13, and severe TBI is less than.
Interestingly, mild TBI symptoms may resolve by themselves without medical intervention. Severe TBI requires urgent medical intervention to rule out the extent of trauma. The symptom of mild TBI includes headache, loss of balance and coordination, nausea, and slurred speech. Signs and symptoms of moderate TBI include; loss of consciousness lasting up to 24 hours, dizziness, blurred vision, headache, confusion, inability to recall new information, disorientation, and problems with finding words (Najem et al., 2018).
Finally, severe traumatic brain injury occurs when the traumatic force extensively affects the brain’s normal function. Its symptoms range from physical, cognitive, and sensory symptoms requiring urgent medical interventions. Severe TBI ends up in a state of coma. Physical symptoms of severe TBI include; complete loss of consciousness, convulsions or seizures, persistent headache or headache that worsens, dilation o both or one pupil, sudden swelling or bruises behind the ears or around the eyes, and loss of coordination and balance (Cabrera, 2021). Sensory symptoms include blurred vision, double vision, and sensitivity to light or sound. Cognitive symptoms include coma and profound confusion. As stated in your post, severe TBI demands urgent intervention since it can be fatal.
Najem, D., Rennie, K., Ribecco-Lutkiewicz, M., Ly, D., Haukenfrers, J., Liu, Q., & Bani-Yaghoub, M. (2018). Traumatic brain injury: classification, models, and markers. Biochemistry and cell biology, 96(4), 391-406.
Cabrera, J. (2021). Mild, moderate, and severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury Medicine, 43-47.e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-323-65385-5.00012-3
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