The cognitive theory is a learning theory applied in psychology and it attempts to show human behavior. It does this by trying to understand the process of thought. This theory assumes that human beings are logical beings and they make the choices based on what make sense to them. The processing of information is a description that is commonly used in mental processes and it compares the human minds to the operations of a computer. They deal with questions which relate to knowing. They seek to explain how information is processed and stored in the brain.

Cognitive theory does not concur with behaviorism. This is because this concepts reduces human behavior which is complex to just a simple cause and effect. The trend for the past couple of years has worked to merge the two concepts into a single but comprehensive cognitive-behavioral theory.

One can use the cognitive theory of learning to determine if the students have understood their subject area. This can be used by considering the several things.

Knowledge: One should have adequate knowledge of the subject matter. They should be able to know what something is and how it is used and the able to recognize it as well.

Comprehension: They should be able to identify something and also distinguish it from other similar things

Application: Be able to use something effectively the way it should be used.

Analysis: Be able to the kind of things to be used the best outcome to be attained in any specific function or usage

Synthesis: They should have some comparison pow

er of the facilities with other similar ones based on the technicalities used and the specific qualities and characteristics in some specific situations

Evaluation: Should have some assessment power and be judgmental about effectiveness of some concepts.

Cognitive theory of leaning can be used to determine some aspects of the students needs. These are mostly done by use of an observational strategy. By evaluating the behavior of someone concerning something you will be able to determine for example whether they are impaired in anyway in terms of perception of concepts. Retention in students can be observed by checking on how long it takes the students to internalize some ideas and retain them in their memories. Attentiveness can be measured by just observing the behavior of student when handling them. Working memory can be gauged in by use of comparison whereby you can evaluate whether there are any changes in the way the students behaved in getting a certain concept previously and currently.

Schema is a theory which views organized knowledge as network that is elaborate with abstract structures of mind which represent how one understands the world. The cognitive theory can be used to determine some of these culturally shaped knowledge structures. When dealing with people from diverse cultural backgrounds it is important to realize the difference in the general knowledge of these people. Schemata are said to grow and to be changing with the acquisition of new information.

It is important to notice that learners experience some conflict internally if they try to internalize some new concepts which are in contrast from what they initially had. Some concepts that have been in existence for long are hard to alter. Therefore many people will choose to live with that which does not concur with others rather than change what they have been holding on to for some time.