Question: When Reviewing For Exam 1, Don’t Forget About Our First PPT Over Colostrum. Specifically, That Colostrum Is A Dam’s First Milk And Contains Antibodies Called __________. You Should Also Know That The Nutritional Profile Of Milk Changes Over Time. Milk Between Colostrum And Whole Milk Is Called ____________ Milk. This Milk Doesn’t Reach The Consumer …

Question: When Reviewing For Exam 1, Don’t Forget About Our First PPT Over Colostrum. Specifically, That Colostrum Is A Dam’s First Milk And Contains Antibodies Called __________. You Should Also Know That The Nutritional Profile Of Milk Changes Over Time. Milk Between Colostrum And Whole Milk Is Called ____________ Milk. This Milk Doesn’t Reach The Consumer …

When reviewing for Exam 1, don’t forget about our first PPTover colostrum. Specifically, that colostrum is a dam’s first milkand contains antibodies called __________. You should also knowthat the nutritional profile of milk changes over time. Milkbetween colostrum and whole milk is called ____________ milk. Thismilk doesn’t reach the consumer (us!) because it also contains milkfrom sick cows who have been treated with _________ which are notallowed in our food. You should remember that the solids content ofhigh-quality colostrum is >_______% while the solids content ofmilk is generally closer to ____________%. To measure solidscontent of a liquid, we use the _______________. We know thatradial immunodiffusion assays are expensive and not practical to beused on-farm to measure Immunoglobulin content of colostrum so weuse the Brix refractometer to give us a good estimate of colostrumquality instead.
We also differentiated between different calf-rearing systems!Calves that stay with their dam and are weaned around seven monthsof age are in the ________ industry whereas dairy calves areseparated from their dams at birth and weaned around _______ monthsof age. Veal calves are generally bull (male) calves from the dairyindustry and they are harvested for meat around _____ months ofage.
The ideal protein-to-fat ratio in the milk diet for dairycalves is _______. Whole milk has a protein-to-fat ratio closer to_______. This may be problematic because this fat could ___________(encourage or discourage) rumen development. Rumen development isimportant. Calves are reliant on their ________ (stomachcompartment) to utilize their diet in early life because theirrumen is not fully functional. To encourage rumen development,calves must eat solids feeds which are fermented by microbes toyield __________ which can be used as energy by the rumen wallitself as well as the host animal.
This microbial population is super cool. It contains bacteria,_________, yeast, and fungi. Really, _________ are responsible forthe majority of fermentation though. Fermentation occurs in the_________ (absence or presence) of oxygen as a means to generateNADH to allow glycolysis to continue, thereby producing more ATP.If there was oxygen, fermentation wouldn’t occur because theelectron transport chain could run. This process is called___________.
Not all products of microbial fermentation are great, though.Specifically, there are methanogens which are ___________(bacteria, protozoa, yeast, or fungi) that convert CO2 and H intomethane. There are many methane abatement strategies and each havelimitations. An interesting one is changing thehemicellulose/starch and cellulose content of the diet. If ananimal eats more cellulose, they will emit __________ (more orless) methane than their counterparts who eat more starch. We alsotalked about vaccines, which are a promising methane abatementstrategy but limited because ____<insert limitationhere>_____.