Question: A 65-year-old Male (John Doe) Is Referred To The Urology Clinic By His General Practitioner Due To Recurrent Episodes Of Painless Visible Haematuria Over The Last Month. Abdominal And Prostate Examination Are Normal, As Are His Blood Test Results. A. List Five Differential Diagnoses In Order Of Likelihood (first Being Your Top Differential). John Undergoes …

Question: A 65-year-old Male (John Doe) Is Referred To The Urology Clinic By His General Practitioner Due To Recurrent Episodes Of Painless Visible Haematuria Over The Last Month. Abdominal And Prostate Examination Are Normal, As Are His Blood Test Results. A. List Five Differential Diagnoses In Order Of Likelihood (first Being Your Top Differential). John Undergoes …

A 65-year-old male (John Doe) is referred to the urology clinicby his general practitioner due to recurrent episodes of painlessvisible haematuria over the last month. Abdominal and prostateexamination are normal, as are his blood test results.

A.   List fivedifferential diagnoses in order of likelihood (first being your topdifferential).

John undergoes an ultrasound of his abdomen which identifies anintra-vesical mass.

B.   What investigationswould you arrange to further evaluate this patient?

Following his work-up, a diagnosis of carcinoma of the bladderis confirmed.

C.   Name the two mainsubtypes of carcinoma of the bladder, and give two risk factors forthe development of each subtype.

The patient proceeds to surgery for treatment of hisdisease.

Name two types of operation that may be used to treatthis disease.