Question: 3 Input Segregation Intercompartment Communication -Feedforward Compartment Feedback Compartment Backpropagating Action Potentials Plateau Potentials Multifactor Synaptic Plasticity Interneuron Modulation 일 Fig. 4 | Empirical Findings Suggest New Ideas For How Backprop-like Learning Might Be Approxi- Mated By The Brain. Al When Backprop Was First …

Question: 3 Input Segregation Intercompartment Communication -Feedforward Compartment Feedback Compartment Backpropagating Action Potentials Plateau Potentials Multifactor Synaptic Plasticity Interneuron Modulation 일 Fig. 4 | Empirical Findings Suggest New Ideas For How Backprop-like Learning Might Be Approxi- Mated By The Brain. Al When Backprop Was First …

3 Input segregation Intercompartment communication -Feedforward compartment Feedback compartment Backpropagating action poten

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3 Input segregation Intercompartment communication -Feedforward compartment Feedback compartment Backpropagating action potentials Plateau potentials Multifactor synaptic plasticity Interneuron modulation 일 Fig. 4 | Empirical findings suggest new ideas for how backprop-like learning might be approxi- mated by the brain. al When backprop was first published, a neuron (grey cell) was typically con- ceived of, and modelled, as a single voltage compartment into which feedforward signals (blue; for example, from a lower-order cortical area) and feedback signals (red; for example, from a higher-order cortical area) would arrive undifferentiated. b A contemporary schematic of a cortical pyramidal neuron (grey cell). Feedforward (1) and feedback (2) inputs are thought to be treated differently. They arrive at different compartments of the cell (for example, the basal and apical dendrites, respectively) and may be electrotonically segregated. Compartments can communicate selectively via backprop- agating action potentials that are triggered by spikes in the soma and via calcium-spike-induced plateau potentials generated in the apical dendrite (3 and 4). Plasticity in one compartment may depend on both local synaptic events and events triggered in another compartment (5). For example, “forward’ basal synaptic plasticity may be altered by the arrival of apically generated plateau poten- tials. Finally, localinhibitory neurons (yellow cells) can regulate the communication between the sub- cellular compartments and can themselves be differentially recruited by higher-order inputs, and thus can modulate the interactions between the forward and backward pathways (6).