Question: 2A. (15 Pts) The Secondary Messenger CAMP Allosterically Activates A Variety Of Enzymes Including Protein Kinase A (PKA). Activation Of PKA Leads To Downstream Activation Of Enzymes That Release Glucose From Glycogen. A. (1 Pts) What Is The Name Of The Ligand That Initiates This Response, And Where Is It Produced? B. (2 Pts) Name The Enzyme That Catalyzes …

Question: 2A. (15 Pts) The Secondary Messenger CAMP Allosterically Activates A Variety Of Enzymes Including Protein Kinase A (PKA). Activation Of PKA Leads To Downstream Activation Of Enzymes That Release Glucose From Glycogen. A. (1 Pts) What Is The Name Of The Ligand That Initiates This Response, And Where Is It Produced? B. (2 Pts) Name The Enzyme That Catalyzes …

2A. (15 pts) The secondary messenger cAMP allosterically activates a variety of enzymes including Protein Kinase A (PKA). Act

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2A. (15 pts) The secondary messenger cAMP allosterically activates a variety of enzymes including Protein Kinase A (PKA). Activation of PKA leads to downstream activation of enzymes that release glucose from glycogen. a. (1 pts) What is the name of the ligand that initiates this response, and where is it produced? b. (2 pts) Name the enzyme that catalyzes the production of CAMP. What is the precursor for this molecule? c. (3 pts) Initial glycogen breakdown in hepatocytes releases Glucose 1-phosphate (G1P). Why is it important to convert G1P into glucose before release into the bloodstream? d. (7 pts) One ligand (from question 3.a) will cause the release of approximately 100,000 glucose molecules. Explain how this is achieved, discuss the major steps involved. e. (2 pts) what are the benefits of signal amplification as discussed in question 3.d? 2B. (10 pts) You and your supervisor decide to characterize two newly identified G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs). You find that both receptors, GPCR-1 and GPCR-2, bind the same ligand. f. (5 pts) Your supervisor explains that both the receptor and the heterotrimeric G-proteins are membrane associated. However, you notice although the receptor has transmembrane (TM) domains, neither the Ga nor the GBx subunits have TM domains. Explain how these subunits are membrane associated. g. (5 pts) You find that although both receptors bind the same ligand, each receptor activates a different G-protein. Furthermore, you find that the binding of ligand has opposite effects on adenylyl cyclase activity for each receptor. GPCR-A causes an increase in adenylyl cyclase activity, while GPCR-B causes a decrease in adenylyl cyclase activity. Based on this information, what type of G-protein is activated by each receptor?